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MỌI KIẾN THỨC VỀ PMI-ACP®

Bài viết Mọi kiến thức về PMI-ACP® bao gồm Danh sách các từ khoá/thuật ngữ quản lý dự án Agile quan trọng mà Atoha tổng hợp nhằm giúp học viên vượt qua kỳ thi PMI-ACP® dễ dàng.

Session 1: Agile Principles and Mindset

  • Agile frameworks and terminology
  • Agile Manifesto
  1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools 
  2. Working software over comprehensive documentation
  3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  4. Responding to change over following a plan

=> If you don’t follow the four Agile Manifesto values “It Will Create Risks”

  1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. [Customer Satisfaction]
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage. [Welcome Changes]
  3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. [Frequently Delivery]
  4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. [Collocated Teams] _ [work with business]
  5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. [Motivated Individuals]
  6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. [Face-to-face Contact]
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. [Working Software]
  8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. [Constant Pace]
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. [Continuous Attention]
  10. Simplicity — the art of maximizing the amount of work not done — is essential. [Simplicity]
  11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams. [Self-Organization]
  12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly. [Regular Reflection]


  • Agile methods and approaches: 
    • Scrum, XP, Kanban, FDD, DSDM, Agile UP
    • Scaled Approach: Lean, Scrum of Scrums, LeSS, Disciplined Agile, SAFe, Crystal Methods
  • Agile process overview
  • Kanban
    • Five principles: 
      1. Visualize the workflow, 
      2. Limit WIP (work in progress), 
      3. Manage flow, 
      4. Make process policies explicit, 
      5. Improve collaboratively
    • Pull system: move work through the development process, When it completes an item of work, it triggers a “pull” to bring in the next item they will work on.
    • WIP limits: Capping the number of items that can be in a given state of progress. Once the limit at the top of a column is reached, no new items may be moved into that column until another item is moved out.
  • Leadership practices and principles
    • Management vs. leadership: We can best amplify team productivity through a combination of management and leadership.
      1. Tasks/things vs People
      2. Control vs Empowerment
      3. Efficiency vs Effectiveness
      4. Doing things right vs Doing the right things
      5. Speed vs Direction
      6. Practices vs principles
      7. Command vs Communication
    • Servant leadership (4 duties):
      1. Shield the team from interruptions
      2. Remove impediments to progress
      3. Communicate (and re-communicate) the project vision
      4. Carry Food and water
  • Lean
    • 7 Core concepts:
      1. Eliminate waste
      2. Empower the team
      3. Deliver fast
      4. Optimize the whole
      5. Build quality in
      6. Defer decisions
      7. Amplify learning
    • 7 wastes
      1. Partially done work
      2. Extra processes
      3. Extra features
      4. Task switching
      5. Waiting
      6. Motion
      7. Defects
  • Scrum 
    • 3 Pillars:
      1. Transparency
      2. Inspection
      3. Adaptation
    • Values
      1. Openness
      2. Respect
      3. Courage
      4. Focus
      5. Commitment
    • Activities
      1. Backlog Refinement
      2. Sprint Planning Meeting
      3. Daily Scrum
      4. Sprint Review
      5. Sprint Retrospective
    • Artifacts 
      1. Product Increment
      2. Product Backlog
      3. Sprint Backlog
    • Team roles
      1. Development Team
      2. Product Owner
      3. Scrum Master
  • XP
    • Core practices 
      1. Whole Team
      2. Planning Games
      3. Small Releases
      4. Customer Tests
      5. Collective Code Ownership
      6. Code Standards
      7. Sustainable Pace
      8. Metaphor
      9. Continuous Integration
      10. Test-Driven Development
      11. Refactoring
      12. Simple Design
      13. Pair Programming
    • Core values 
      1. Simplicity
      2. Communication
      3. Feedback
      4. Courage
      5. Respect
    • Team roles
      1. Coach
      2. Customer
      3. Programmers
      4. Testers


Session 2: Value-Driven Delivery

  • Agile contracting
    • Multi-tiered structure
    • Emphasize value delivered
    • Not-to-exceed time and materials
    • Dynamic scope option
    • Team augmentation
    • Favor full-service suppliers
    • Fixed-price increments.
    • DSDM Contract
    • Money for Nothing and Change for Free
    • Graduated Fixed-Price Contract
    • Fixed-Price Work Packages
    • Customized Contracts
  • Agile project accounting principles 
  • Agile risk management:
    • Risk-adjusted backlog 
    • Risk burndown charts
  • Agile tooling: Low-Tech, High-Touch Tools
  • Compliance/regulatory compliance: is one instance of where “just because” comes into play.
    • Doing the compliance work “as you go”
    • Doing the compliance work after product development
    • Hybrid approach
  • Cumulative flow diagrams (CFDs): tracking and forecasting the delivery of value.
  • Little’s Law: The more WIP and the longer cycle times we have on the project, the higher the amount of potential scrap.
  • Customer-valued prioritization: working on the items that yield the highest value to the customer first
  • Earned value management (EVM) for agile projects
    • Projected progress, Planned value (PV), Planned features
    • Scope built, Earned value (EV), Completed features
    • Planned cost, Projected spending
    • Actual cost (AC), Actual spending
    • Schedule variance (SV) = EV - PV
    • Cost variance (CV) = EV - AC
    • SPI = Completed features / Planned features
    • CPI = Earned value / Actual cost
  • Frequent verification and validation: Agile uses regular testing, checkpoints, and reviews to address problems before they get bigger.
    • Gulf of evaluation: What one person describes is often very different from how the listener interprets it.
    • Pair programming
    • Unit test
    • Customer collaboration
    • Stand-up meetings
    • Acceptance test
    • Iteration demo
    • Release
  • Incremental delivery: deliver the “plain-vanilla” version to get an early return on investment.
  • Managing with agile KPIs:
    • Rate of progress.
    • Remaining work.
    • Likely completion date.
    • Likely costs remaining.
  • Minimal viable product (MVP): package of functionality that is complete enough to be useful to the users or the market, yet still small enough that it does not represent the entire project.
  • Minimal marketable feature (MMF) 
  • Prioritization schemes 
    • Simple Schemes: “Priority 1,” “ Priority 2,” “ Priority 3,”. “ high,” “medium,” and “ low”
    • Kano analysis: Delighters/exciters, Satisfiers, Dissatisfiers, Indifferent
    • MoSCoW: Must have, Should have, Could have, Would like to have
    • Monopoly Money: distribute funds amongst the system features, prioritizing business features.
    • 100-Point Method: each stakeholder is given 100 points, distribute the 100 points in any way.
    • Dot Voting or Multi-Voting: Each stakeholder is limited to a total of dots to distribute as they wish.
    • Requirements Prioritization Model:  the benefit, penalty, cost, and risk of every proposed feature is rated on a relative scale of 1 (lowest) to 9 (highest).
  • Relative prioritization/ranking: A single prioritized list of work-to-be-done.
  • ROI/NPV/IRR
    • Return on Investment (ROI): measures the profitability of an investment by calculating the ratio of the benefits received from the investment to the money invested in it.
    • Present Value: Present value is a way of calculating the value of a future amount in today's terms, given an assumed interest rate and inflation rate.
    • Net Present Value (NPV): The present value of a revenue stream (income minus costs) over a series of time periods.
    • Internal Rate of Return (IRR): The discount rate at which the project inflows (revenues) and project outflows (costs) are equal.
  • Software development practices 
    • Continuous Integration: developers to frequently incorporate new and changed code into their project code repository. 
    • Exploratory testing: find edge cases, system boundaries, and unanticipated behavior
    • Usability testing: observing users as they interact with the system for the first time.
    • Red, Green, Refactor: The process of writing a test that initially fails, adding code until the test passes, and then refactoring the code.
    • TDD/TFD: Tests should be written before the code is written.
    • ATDD: Moves the testing focus from the code to the business requirement.
  • Task/Kanban boards: a whiteboard with columns that show various stages of work.
  • Value-driven delivery: One of the key ways agile teams try to maximize value is by delivering value early. 
  • Work in progress (WIP): work that has been started but has not yet been completed. 
    • WIP consumes investment capital and delivers no return on the investment
    • WIP hides bottlenecks in processes
    • WIP represents risk in the form of potential rework
  • WIP limits: restrict the amount of work in the system and help ensure that WIP limits are not exceeded.
    • Identify bottlenecks and Remove bottlenecks
    • Reduce the risks of tied-up capital, rework, and waste
    • Optimize throughput of work, not to optimize resource utilization.


Session 3: Stakeholder Engagement

  • Active listening 
  • Agile chartering 
  • Agile modeling 
  • Assessing and incorporating community and stakeholder values 
  • Brainstorming Collaboration
    • Collaboration games 
  • Communication management 
    • Face-to-face (F2F) 
    • Social media 
    • Two-way (trustworthy,conversation-driven)
  • Conflict resolution 
    • Levels of conflict 
  • Definition of "done" 
  • Emotional intelligence 
  • Facilitation 
  • Information radiators 
  • Knowledge sharing/written communication communication
  • Negotiation
  • Participatory decision models (convergent, shared collaboration) 
    • Decision spectrum 
    • Fist-of-five voting 
    • Simple voting 
    • Thumbs up/down/sideways 
  • Personas 
  • Stakeholder management (stewardship) 
  • Wireframes  
  • Workshops


Session 4: Team Performance

  • Adaptive leadership 
  • Agile team roles 
  • Building agile teams 
    • Self-directing 
    • Self-organizing 
  • Burndown/burnup charts 
  • Caves and common 
  • Co-location (physical and virtual)
  • Developmental mastery models 
    • Dreyfus (skill acquisition) 
    • Shu-Ha-Ri (mastery) 
    • Tuckman (team formation) 
  • Global, cultural, and team diversity 
  • Osmotic communication 
    • Co-located teams (proximity) 
    • Distributed teams (digital tools)
  • Tacit knowledge 
  • Team motivation 
  • Team space 
  • Training, coaching, and mentoring 
    • Individual vs. team coaching 
  • Velocity


Session 5: Adaptive Planning

  • Affinity estimating 
  • Agile discovery 
  • Agile sizing and estimating techniques 
  • Daily stand-ups 
    • Ground rules 
    • Three Questions 
  • Defining and testing acceptance criteria 
  • Estimating initial velocity 
  • Estimating tasks 
  • Fast failure
  • Ideal time 
  • Iteration planning process 
  • Planning poker 
  • Product roadmap 
  • Progressive elaboration 
  • Relative sizing 
  • Release planning process
  • Rolling wave planning 
  • Slicing stories 
  • Spikes 
    • Architectural spike 
    • Risk-based spike
  • Story maps 
  • Story points 
  • Timeboxing 
  • T-shirt sizing 
  • User stories 
  • User story backlog 
    • Refining (grooming) the backlog 
    • Requirements reviews 
  • Value-based analysis and decomposition 
  • Wideband Delphi


Session 6: Problem Detection and Resolution

  • Control limits 
  • Cost of change 
  • Cycle time 
  • Defect rate 
  • Escaped defects 
  • Expected monetary value 
  • Failure and success modes 
  • Lead time
  • Problem Solving 
    • As continuous improvement 
    • Team-based 
  • Risk-adjusted backlog 
  • Risk burndown graphs 
  • Risk severity 
  • Technical debt 
  • Throughput/productivity
  • Trend analysis 
    • Lagging metrics 
    • Leading metrics 
  • Variance analysis 
    • Common cause 
    • Special cause


Session 7: Continuous Improvement

  • Agile hybrid models 
  • Approved iterations 
  • Continuous improvement 
  • Feedback methods 
  • Fishbone Analysis 
  • Five Whys 
  • Kaizen 
  • Learning cycle 
  • PMI’s Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
  • Process analysis 
    • Anti-patterns 
    • Success criteria 
    • Success patterns 
  • Process tailoring 
    • Risks 
    • Recommendations 
  • Product feedback loop 
  • Project pre-mortems (khám nghiệm)
  • Retrospectives (intraspectives) 
    • Five-step process 
    • Three problem-solving steps
  • Reviews 
  • Self-assessment tools and techniques 
  • Systems thinking 
  • Value stream mapping 
    • Non value-added time
    • Process cycle efficiency 
    • Total cycle time 
    • Value-added time

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