PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)® Examination Content Outline
PMI-ACP® Examination Content Outline (ECO) mô tả chi tiết về câu hỏi thi PMI-ACP®
Nếu bạn có kinh nghiệm sử dụng các phương pháp nhanh linh hoạt (agile), có kỹ năng cộng tác tốt, háo hức đón nhận sự phức tạp và phát triển mạnh nhờ thời gian phản hồi nhanh, thì tài năng của bạn đang được nhiều bên cần.
PMI Agile Certified Practice (PMI-ACP)® chính thức công nhận kiến thức của bạn về các nguyên tắc agile và kỹ năng của bạn với các kỹ thuật agile. Nó sẽ làm cho bạn tỏa sáng hơn nữa đối với nhà tuyển dụng, các bên liên quan và các đồng nghiệp của bạn.
PMI-ACP® là chứng nhận tăng trưởng nhanh nhất của PMI và điều đó không có gì lạ. Các tổ chức rất nhanh nhẹn và phản ứng nhanh với các động lực thị trường đã hoàn thành nhiều dự án của họ thành công hơn so với các bên di chuyển chậm hơn - 75% so với 56% - như được thể hiện trong báo cáo Pulse of Profession 2015 của PMI.
PMI-ACP® mở rộng nhiều cách tiếp cận agile như Scrum, Kanban, Lean, lập trình cực đoan (extreme programming - XP) và phát triển dựa trên thử nghiệm (test-driven development - TDD.) Vì vậy, nó sẽ tăng tính linh hoạt của bạn dù bất cứ nơi nào các dự án của bạn có thể đưa bạn đến.
Bảng bên dưới xác định tỷ lệ phần trăm (%) câu hỏi từ mỗi domain trong số 7 domains sẽ xuất hiện trong bài thi PMI-ACP®.
% of Exam
Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset (9 tasks)
Domain II. Value-Driven Delivery (4 sub-domains, 14 tasks)
Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)
Domain IV. Team Performance (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks)
Domain V. Adaptive Planning (3 sub-domains, 10 tasks)
Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution (5 tasks)
Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) (6 tasks)
Chi tiết PMI-ACP® Examination Content Outline
Domain I. Agile Principles and Mindset (9 tasks) - 16%
Explore, embrace, and apply agile principles and mindset within the context of the project team and organization.
Task 1. Advocate for agile principles by modeling those principles and discussing agile values in order to develop a shared mindset across the team as well as between the customer and the team.
Task 2. Help ensure that everyone has a common understanding of the values and principles of agile and a common knowledge around the agile practices and terminology being used in order to work effectively.
Task 3. Support change at the system or organization level by educating the organization and influencing processes, behaviors, and people in order to make the organization more effective and efficient.
Task 4. Practice visualization by maintaining highly visible information radiators showing real progress and real team performance in order to enhance transparency and trust.
Task 5. Contribute to a safe and trustful team environment by allowing everyone to experiment and make mistakes so that each can learn and continuously improve the way he or she works.
Task 6. Enhance creativity by experimenting with new techniques and process ideas in order to discover more efficient and effective ways of working.
Task 7. Encourage team members to share knowledge by collaborating and working together in order to lower risks around knowledge silos and reduce bottlenecks.
Task 8. Encourage emergent leadership within the team by establishing a safe and respectful environment in which new approaches can be tried in order to make improvements and foster self-organization and empowerment.
Task 9. Practice servant leadership by supporting and encouraging others in their endeavors so that they can perform at their highest level and continue to improve.
Domain II. Value-Driven Delivery (4 sub-domains, 14 tasks) - 20%
Deliver valuable results by producing high-value increments for review, early and often, based on stakeholder priorities. Have the stakeholders provide feedback on these increments, and use this feedback to prioritize and improve future increments.
Define Positive Value
Task 1. Define deliverables by identifying units that can be produced incrementally in order to maximize their value to stakeholders while minimizing non-value added work.
Task 2. Refine requirements by gaining consensus on the acceptance criteria for features on a just-in-time basis in order to deliver value.
Task 3. Select and tailor the team’s process based on project and organizational characteristics as well as team experience in order to optimize value delivery.
Avoid Potential Downsides
Task 4. Plan for small releasable increments by organizing requirements into minimally marketable features/minimally viable products in order to allow for the early recognition and delivery of value.
Task 5. Limit increment size and increase review frequency with appropriate stakeholders in order to identify and respond to risks early on and at minimal cost.
Task 6. Solicit customer and user feedback by reviewing increments often in order to confirm and enhance business value.
Task 7. Prioritize the units of work through collaboration with stakeholders in order to optimize the value of the deliverables.
Task 8. Perform frequent review and maintenance of the work results by prioritizing and maintaining internal quality in order to reduce the overall cost of incremental development.
Task 9. Continuously identify and prioritize the environmental, operational, and infrastructure factors in order to improve the quality and value of the deliverables.
Task 10. Conduct operational reviews and/or periodic checkpoints with stakeholders in order to obtain feedback and corrections to the work in progress and planned work.
Task 11. Balance development of deliverable units and risk reduction efforts by incorporating both value producing and risk reducing work into the backlog in order to maximize the total value proposition over time.
Task 12. Re-prioritize requirements periodically in order to reflect changes in the environment and stakeholder needs or preferences in order to maximize the value.
Task 13. Elicit and prioritize relevant non-functional requirements (such as operations and security) by considering the environment in which the solution will be used in order to minimize the probability of failure.
Task 14. Conduct frequent reviews of work products by performing inspections, reviews, and/or testing in order to identify and incorporate improvements into the overall process and product/service.
Domain III. Stakeholder Engagement (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks) - 17%
Engage current and future interested parties by building a trusting environment that aligns their needs and expectations and balances their requests with an understanding of the cost/effort involved. Promote participation and collaboration throughout the project life cycle and provide the tools for effective and informed decision making.
Understand Stakeholder Needs
Task 1. Identify and engage effective and empowered business stakeholder(s) through periodic reviews in order to ensure that the team is knowledgeable about stakeholders’ interests, needs, and expectations.
Task 2. Identify and engage all stakeholders (current and future) by promoting knowledge sharing early and throughout the project to ensure the unimpeded flow of information and value throughout the lifespan of the project.
Ensure Stakeholder Involvement
Task 3. Establish stakeholder relationships by forming a working agreement among key stakeholders in order to promote participation and effective collaboration.
Task 4. Maintain proper stakeholder involvement by continually assessing changes in the project and organization in order to ensure that new stakeholders are appropriately engaged.
Task 5. Establish collaborative behaviors among the members of the organization by fostering group decision making and conflict resolution in order to improve decision quality and reduce the time required to make decisions.
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
Task 6. Establish a shared vision of the various project increments (products, deliverables, releases, iterations) by developing a high level vision and supporting objectives in order to align stakeholders’ expectations and build trust.
Task 7. Establish and maintain a shared understanding of success criteria, deliverables, and acceptable trade-offs by facilitating awareness among stakeholders in order to align expectations and build trust.
Task 8. Provide transparency regarding work status by communicating team progress, work quality, impediments, and risks in order to help the primary stakeholders make informed decisions.
Task 9. Provide forecasts at a level of detail that balances the need for certainty and the benefits of adaptability in order to allow stakeholders to plan effectively.
Domain IV. Team Performance (3 sub-domains, 9 tasks) - 16%
Create an environment of trust, learning, collaboration, and conflict resolution that promotes team self-organization, enhances relationships among team members, and cultivates a culture of high performance.
Task 1. Cooperate with the other team members to devise ground rules and internal processes in order to foster team coherence and strengthen team members’ commitment to shared outcomes.
Task 2. Help create a team that has the interpersonal and technical skills needed to achieve all known project objectives in order to create business value with minimal delay.
Task 3. Encourage team members to become generalizing specialists in order to reduce team size and bottlenecks, and to create a high- performing cross-functional team.
Task 4. Contribute to self-organizing the work by empowering others and encouraging emerging leadership in order to produce effective solutions and manage complexity.
Task 5. Continuously discover team and personal motivators and de- motivators in order to ensure that team morale is high and team members are motivated and productive throughout the project.
Team Collaboration and Commitment
Task 6. Facilitate close communication within the team and with appropriate external stakeholders through co-location or the use of collaboration tools in order to reduce miscommunication and rework.
Task 7. Reduce distractions in order to establish a predictable outcome and optimize the value delivered.
Task 8. Participate in aligning project and team goals by sharing project vision in order to ensure the team understands how their objectives fit into the overall goals of the project.
Task 9. Encourage the team to measure its velocity by tracking and measuring actual performance in previous iterations or releases in order for members to gain a better understanding of their capacity and create more accurate forecasts.
Domain V. Adaptive Planning (3 sub-domains, 10 tasks) - 12%
Produce and maintain an evolving plan, from initiation to closure, based on goals, values, risks, constraints, stakeholder feedback, and review findings.
Levels of Planning
Task 1. Plan at multiple levels (strategic, release, iteration, daily) creating appropriate detail by using rolling wave planning and progressive elaboration to balance predictability of outcomes with ability to exploit opportunities.
Task 2. Make planning activities visible and transparent by encouraging participation of key stakeholders and publishing planning results in order to increase commitment level and reduce uncertainty.
Task 3. As the project unfolds, set and manage stakeholder expectations by making increasingly specific levels of commitments in order to ensure common understanding of the expected deliverables.
Task 4. Adapt the cadence and the planning process based on results of periodic retrospectives about characteristics and/or the size/complexity/criticality of the project deliverables in order to maximize the value.
Task 5. Inspect and adapt the project plan to reflect changes in requirements, schedule, budget, and shifting priorities based on team learning, delivery experience, stakeholder feedback, and defects in order to maximize business value delivered.
Agile Sizing and Estimation
Task 6. Size items by using progressive elaboration techniques in order to determine likely project size independent of team velocity and external variables.
Task 7. Adjust capacity by incorporating maintenance and operations demands and other factors in order to create or update the range estimate.
Task 8. Create initial scope, schedule, and cost range estimates that reflect current high level understanding of the effort necessary to deliver the project in order to develop a starting point for managing the project.
Task 9. Refine scope, schedule, and cost range estimates that reflect the latest understanding of the effort necessary to deliver the project in order to manage the project.
Task 10. Continuously use data from changes in resource capacity, project size, and velocity metrics in order to evaluate the estimate to complete.
Domain VI. Problem Detection and Resolution (5 tasks) - 10%
Continuously identify problems, impediments, and risks; prioritize and resolve in a timely manner; monitor and communicate the problem resolution status; and implement process improvements to prevent them from occurring again.
Task 1. Create an open and safe environment by encouraging conversation and experimentation, in order to surface problems and impediments that are slowing the team down or preventing its ability to deliver value.
Task 2. Identify threats and issues by educating and engaging the team at various points in the project in order to resolve them at the appropriate time and improve processes that caused issues.
Task 3. Ensure issues are resolved by appropriate team members and/or reset expectations in light of issues that cannot be resolved in order to maximize the value delivered.
Task 4. Maintain a visible, monitored, and prioritized list of threats and issues in order to elevate accountability, encourage action, and track ownership and resolution status.
Task 5. Communicate status of threats and issues by maintaining threat list and incorporating activities into backlog of work in order to provide transparency.
Domain VII. Continuous Improvement (Product, Process, People) (6 tasks) - 9%
Continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, and value of the product, the process, and the team.
Task 1. Tailor and adapt the project process by periodically reviewing and integrating team practices, organizational culture, and delivery goals in order to ensure team effectiveness within established organizational guidelines and norms.
Task 2. Improve team processes by conducting frequent retrospectives and improvement experiments in order to continually enhance the effectiveness of the team, project, and organization.
Task 3. Seek feedback on the product by incremental delivery and frequent demonstrations in order to improve the value of the product.
Task 4. Create an environment of continued learning by providing opportunities for people to develop their skills in order to develop a more productive team of generalizing specialists.
Task 5. Challenge existing process elements by performing a value stream analysis and removing waste in order to increase individual efficiency and team effectiveness.
Task 6. Create systemic improvements by disseminating knowledge and practices across projects and organizational boundaries in order to avoid re-occurrence of identified problems and improve the effectiveness of the organization as a whole.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES
The examples illustrate the breadth of the toolkit, but are NOT meant to provide an exhaustive list of all techniques and tools in the toolkit
Agile Analysis and Design: Including but not limited to:
- product roadmap
- user stories/backlog
- story maps
- progressive elaboration
- agile modeling
- learning cycle
- collaboration games
Agile Estimation: Including but not limited to:
- relative sizing/story points/T-shirt sizing
- wide band Delphi/planning poker
- affinity estimating
- ideal time
Communications: Including but not limited to:
- information radiator
- team space agile tooling
- osmotic communications for co-located and/or distributed teams
- two-way communications (trustworthy, conversation driven)
- social media–based communication
- active listening
- feedback methods
Interpersonal skills: Including but not limited to:
- emotional intelligence
- adaptive leadership
- servant leadership
- conflict resolution
Metrics: Including but not limited to:
- cycle time
- lead time
- EVM for agile projects
- defect rate
- approved iterations
- work in progress (WIP)
Planning, Monitoring, and Adapting: Including but not limited to:
- Kanban board
- task board
- iteration and release planning
- variance and trend analysis
- WIP limits
- daily stand ups
- burn down/up charts
- cumulative flow diagrams
- backlog grooming/refinement
- product-feedback loop
Process Improvement: Including but not limited to:
- the Five WHYs
- retrospectives, intraspectives
- process tailoring/hybrid models
- value stream mapping
- control limits
- pre-mortem (rule setting, failure analysis)
- fishbone diagram analysis
Product Quality: Including but not limited to:
- frequent verification and validation
- definition of done (DOD)
- continuous integration
- testing, including exploratory and usability
Risk Management: Including but not limited to:
- risk adjusted backlog
- risk burn down graphs
- risk-based spike
- architectural spike
Value-Based Prioritization: Including but not limited to:
- customer valued prioritization
- requirements reviews
- minimal viable product (MVP)
- minimal marketable feature (MMF)
- relative prioritization/ranking MoSCoW
- Kano analysis
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS
Each statement is preceded implicitly by Knowledge of or Skill in
- Agile values and principles
- Agile frameworks and terminology
- Agile methods and approaches
- Assessing and incorporating community and stakeholder values
- Stakeholder management
- Communication management
- Facilitation methods
- Knowledge sharing/written communication
- Building agile teams
- Team motivation
- Physical and virtual co-location
- Global, cultural, and team diversity
- Training, coaching, and mentoring
- Developmental mastery models (for example, Tuckman, Dreyfus, Shu Ha Ri)
- Self-assessment tools and techniques
- Participatory decision models (for example, convergent, shared collaboration)
- Principles of systems thinking (for example, complex adaptive, chaos)
- Problem solving
- Incremental delivery
- Agile discovery
- Agile sizing and estimation
- Value based analysis and decomposition
- Process analysis
- Continuous improvement
- Agile hybrid models
- Managing with agile KPIs
- Agile project chartering
- Agile contracting
- Agile project accounting principles
- Regulatory compliance
- PMI's Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct